Singapore in the merger years: from the Japanese surrender to its entry into the Federation of Malaya

Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, Tunku Abduhl Rahman

Japan’s surrender and the return of Singapore under British control On August the 15th, 1945 the Emperor of Japan  Hirohito announced the declaration of unconditional surrender1 and therefore the Japanese General Seishiro Hitagachi, lieutenant in charge of Singapore, on September the 2nd of the same year signed the documents of Japanese surrender in front of the British admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, who at that time was the supreme commander of allied forces in Southeast Asia2. Since April the 1st,…


Japanese occupation and economic boom in Singapore

Japanese occupation, Singapore, Japanese victory

Around the last decades of Nineteenth century, aside from being considered a key hub for all import and export maritime trade routes of the entire Malay Peninsula, Singapore had also gradually become one of the the most dynamic immigration port in the whole Southeast Asia. In fact, it was just in Singapore island that the vaste majority of Chinese, Indian and Indonesian immigrants – who had arrived in droves – used…


Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and the British colonization of Singapore among Penang, Melaka and Bencoolen

Raffles- Compagnia Inglese delle Indie

The arrival of the British in Penang and Francis Light’s free trade strategy Around the end of the Eighteenth century the British East India Company, in order to meet the need of an intermediate logistic base for its merchants ships that followed the Indo-chinese routs, began establishing the early diplomatic relations with Malaysian authorities and, thanks to official Francis Light‘s cunning, who was a former cadet of the Royal Navy, in 1786 it managed…


Portuguese conquerors VS Dutch East India Company: Singapore in the Sultanate of Johor

Between the end of the Fifteenth and the dawn of Sixteenth centuries, Portuguese conquerors, strengthened by a series of considerable achievements in the field of navigation put into effect by the illustrious leading explorers Vasco da Gama (1469-1524) and Bartolomeu Dias (1450-1500), started considering the idea of establishing a colonial outpost on the strategic port of Melaka. The Portuguese were quite enticed by the alluring opportunity to impose their dominion on the spice market, which had been dominated by Indian…


Singapore and its origins through archaeology and the legend of Parameswara, the renegade prince

Singapore and the voice of the most illustrious archaeologists and anthropologists The first human settlements in the Malay Archipelago probably date back to about 40.000 years ago, age to which, according to some archaeologists, we can date back the human skull discovered in Niah Caves, located in todays State of Sarawak, which is situated in the north of the Island of Borneo. Still very little is known about the origins of these ancient civilizations, despite the most reliable…


Southeast Asia, the arrival of British settlers and the battles for the imminent colonization

loading… Southeast Asia currently offers one of the most variegated and unique scenery in the whole planet where, in addition to the mixture of ancient indigenous languages and Asian dialects in general, it is possible to observe an interesting phenomenon of mixing between the influence of British English and that of American English. In order to discover all events and factors that have contributed to the preponderance of the former or the latter variant in any…


The British East India Company and the spread of English in Asia

British East India Company

Strongly encouraged by the expertise reached after the circumnavigation of the Cape of Good Hope performed by Bartolomeu Dias in 14871 and increasingly eager to discover new alternative commercial routes to the traditional ones such as the famous Silk Road2, the first Europian navigators who entered into direct contact with Asian populations were Portuguese. In fact, just these latter one decade after, under the leadership of Vasco da Gama reached the west coast of  Southern India,…


English Language: here you are revealed the incidence in Central and Southeast Asia

English in Asia

With its two-thirds of the world’s population, two nations officially recognized as being part of the three largest economic realities in the planet (China and Japan)1, a host of countries among the most industrialized and technologically advanced in the likes of South Korea, Taiwan and Singapore, which are constantly in competition for the role of world leader in the field of modern technologies2 and an endless amount of still untapped natural resouces and raw…


English or World Englishes? That is the question!

The spread of English: a global phenomenon Among the most significant and controversial phenomena of interest within the contemporary sociolinguistic scene, undoubtedly stands out that regarding the spread of English Language on a global scale. Infact, besides having monopolized the domain of international political and economic communication, English language nowadays plays an essential role even in the field of science and Information Technology. For better understanding the extent of this phenomenon, we could make reference to some statistical data provided by British Council1 and reported…


What happened to contemporary English?

What do the leading experts in English sociolinguistics say? The future of English: a glance toward the sociolinguistic debate and new perspectives Since some decades to the present the intellectual efforts of the most influential linguists of the anglophone universe as David Crystal, Tom McArthur and Braj B. Kachru, led the world toward the awareness of a pervasively widespread English language on a global scale, which at the same time becomes deeply marked and influenced by the countless linguistic realities with which it progressively came into contact….