Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and the British colonization of Singapore among Penang, Melaka and Bencoolen

Raffles- Compagnia Inglese delle Indie

The arrival of the British in Penang and Francis Light’s free trade strategy Around the end of the Eighteenth century the British East India Company, in order to meet the need of an intermediate logistic base for its merchants ships that followed the Indo-chinese routs, began establishing the early diplomatic relations with Malaysian authorities and, thanks to official Francis Light‘s cunning, who was a former cadet of the Royal Navy, in 1786 it managed…


Portuguese conquerors VS Dutch East India Company: Singapore in the Sultanate of Johor

Between the end of the Fifteenth and the dawn of Sixteenth centuries, Portuguese conquerors, strengthened by a series of considerable achievements in the field of navigation put into effect by the illustrious leading explorers Vasco da Gama (1469-1524) and Bartolomeu Dias (1450-1500), started considering the idea of establishing a colonial outpost on the strategic port of Melaka. The Portuguese were quite enticed by the alluring opportunity to impose their dominion on the spice market, which had been dominated by Indian…


Singapore and its origins through archaeology and the legend of Parameswara, the renegade prince

Singapore and the voice of the most illustrious archaeologists and anthropologists The first human settlements in the Malay Archipelago probably date back to about 40.000 years ago, age to which, according to some archaeologists, we can date back the human skull discovered in Niah Caves, located in todays State of Sarawak, which is situated in the north of the Island of Borneo. Still very little is known about the origins of these ancient civilizations, despite the most reliable…